A good deal of space is taken up with the myth of the cave, which of course is very beautiful, but it does not give the student the salient features of the Republic. One expects rather some account of Plato's ideal state, which is given somewhat inadequately on page seq. The sentence p. The Republic , Timaios , and Kritias fragment are classed together on some unexplained principle in what appears to be a fourth or fifth series pp.
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The author will not find many sympathizers with his view of placing the Philebos before Parmenides , though chronological considerations do not appear to have determined his classification. But if the character of contents was the basis of classification, why not treat the Politikos in the same series with the Republic? The reference to philosophers as "Kings" p. Philosophers are, to be sure, the rulers, the guardian, or reigning class, but not "Kings" in his state; the employment of this word conveys the notion that Plato's ideal state was a monarchy, not an aristocracy.
We further take exception to the statement in reference to the Organon of Aristotle p. What then is there left of the Organon to find in these psychological dialogues? It is true that in these dialogues definition, the concept, etc. In speaking of the Platonic classification of the faculties of the soul, the author says that to Desire, Passion, and Reason the virtues Temperance, Courage, and Wisdom correspond. The faculties and virtues can only in a loose way be called parallel. The paragraph p.
A more considerable defect in this chapter is the seeming credence given to Strabo's and Plutarch's account of the loss of the writings of Aristotle. Their main concern was to come up with a cosmological theory purely based on natural phenomena. Their approach required the rejection of all traditional explanations based on religious authority, dogma, myth and superstition.
Observation was important among the Milesian school. Thales predicted an eclipse which took place in BCE and it seems he had been able to calculate the distance of a ship at sea from observations taken at two points. Anaximander, based on the fact that human infants are helpless at birth, argued that if the first human had somehow appeared on earth as an infant, it would not have survived: therefore, humans have evolved from other animals whose offspring are fitter. The science among Milesians was stronger than their philosophy and somewhat crude, but it encouraged observation in many subsequent thinkers and was also a good stimulus to approach in a rational fashion many of the traditional questions that had previously been answered through religion and superstition.
The Ionian rational view caused nothing but perplexity among some of their powerful neighbours such as the Babylonians and Egyptians, which were nations based on theocratic governments where religion played an important political and social role. Pythagoras is considered one of the Ionian thinkers but outside the Milesian school: he was originally from Samos , an offshore Ionian settlement. His approach combines science with religious beliefs, something that would have caused horror among the Milesian school.
His philosophy has a dose of mysticism, probably an influence of the Orphic tradition.
Catalog Record: A short history of Greek philosophy / by John | HathiTrust Digital Library
Mathematics, in the sense of demonstrative deductive arguments, begins with Pythagoras: he is credited as the author of the first known mathematical formulation, the theorem which states that the square of the longest side of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the other two sides. Deductive reasoning from general premises seems to have been a Pythagorean innovation.
Atomism began with Leucippus and Democritus. Among the ancient schools, this approach is the closest to modern science: they believed that everything is composed of atoms, which are indestructible and physically indivisible. They were strict determinists, who believed that everything happens in accordance with natural laws and the universe, they said, has no purpose and is nothing more than a mixture of infinite atoms being shuffled and re-shuffled according to the indifferent rules of nature.
What is interesting about this school is that it attempted to understand the universe as objectively as possible and minimize intellectual deviations in favour of cultural and mystic prejudices. About BCE, the Greek city-states or poleis were still largely divided.
They had a common language and culture, but they were very often rivals. Some years earlier, Athens implemented a socio-political innovation by which all free male citizens had equal rights regardless of their origin and fortune. They named it democracy. Before the time of democracy, government decision-making was in the hands of a few, often aristocratic and noble families.
Democracy allowed all free citizens to be part of the important decisions of the polis. They could engage in the discussions held during deliberative assembly and tribunals, their voices could be heard everywhere and had the same value as any other voice. In this context, speech was king: being able to discuss different topics effectively and to persuade others, granted a competitive advantage.
This was true not only of citizens actively involved in politics, but for any other citizen. During court hearings, for example, prosecutor and accused had to appear in court in person, never through lawyers, and the failure or success of the process relied largely on rhetorical skills and any citizen could be subject to a court hearing. This period, therefore, saw the beginning of the Sophist school. The Sophists were intellectuals who taught courses in various topics, including rhetoric, a useful skill in Athens.
This was a time of profound political and social change in Athens: democracy had replaced the old way of doing politics and many aristocrats whose interests were affected were trying to destroy the democracy; the rapid increase of wealth and culture, mainly due to foreign commerce, undermined traditional beliefs and morals. In a way, the Sophists represented the new political era in Athenian life, especially because they were linked with the new educational needs.
Caught in the clash between cultural conservatism and innovation, we find a peculiar character: Socrates, the pivotal figure in Greek philosophy and the wisest among Greeks at his time according to the oracle of Delphi. Like the Sophists, Socrates enjoyed teaching, but unlike the Sophists he never requested a fee in return and lived a life of austerity. He either underestimated or ignored most of the topics that were popular among his predecessors. However, Socrates set in motion a new approach by focusing entirely on moral and psychological questions.
His methodology sought to define key questions such as: what is virtue? By combining a humble spirit he never claimed to be any wiser than anyone else and a strict agnosticism he said he knew nothing with a method that challenged conventional assumptions and an intolerance for unclear thinking, Socrates gradually earned enemies from various sectors of Athenian society. He was, consequently, put on trial and condemned to death.
Plato and Aristotle are the two most important Greek philosophers.
Their work has been the main focus of interest for students of philosophy and specialists. This is partly because, unlike most of their predecessors, what they wrote survived in an accessible form and partly because Christian thought, which was the dominant thought in the Western world during the Middle Ages and early modern age, contained a high dose of Platonic and Aristotelian influence.
Plato was a student of Socrates who left Athens disgusted by the death of his teacher. After travelling for many years, he returned to Athens and opened his famous Academy. Plato had many philosophical interests including ethics and politics but he is best known for his metaphysical and epistemological ideas. One of his most influential insights is the Theory of Ideas: to Plato, notions like virtue, justice, beauty, goodness, etc. We are born into this world with an imperfect memory of these Forms. In that ideal world of Ideas, one can experience the real Forms which are perfect and universal.
Because the earliest Greek philosophers focused their attention upon the origin and nature of the physical world, they are often called cosmologists, or naturalists. Although monistic views which trace the origin of the world to a single substance prevailed at first, they were soon followed by several pluralistic…. Among the ancient Greeks, athletes preparing for physical contests e.
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In order to achieve a high proficiency in the skills of warfare, warriors also adopted various ascetical practices. The ancient…. Their speculation about a hard, indivisible fundamental particle of nature was replaced slowly by a scientific theory supported by experiment and mathematical deduction. It was more than 2, years before modern physicists realized that the atom is indeed…. Not only the general idea of atomism but also the whole spectrum of its different forms originated in ancient Greece.
As early as the….siencya.com/images/89.php
Catalog Record: A short history of Greek philosophy / by John Marshall | HathiTrust Digital Library
In comparing Greek atomism and modern atomic theories, it should be recalled that in Greek thought philosophy and science still formed a unity. Greek atomism was inspired as much by the desire to find a solution for the problems…. According to Clement, philosophy was to the Greeks, as the Law of Moses was to the Jews, a preparatory discipline leading to the truth, which was personified in the Logos.
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His goal was to make….